Forests of the Southern Paper Raw Material Company (The Company) is located at low and average moutainous area and on the area of eight districts of Kon Tum province, which are Sa Thay, Dak To, Dak Ha, Ngoc Hoi, Tu Mo Rong, Dakglei, Kon Ray and Kon Plong.


SPRM: Southern Paper Raw Material Company
FSC: Forest Stewardship Council
HCV:  High Conservation Value
HCVF: High Conservation Value Forest
IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature
RIL:  Reduce Impact Logging
SĐVN: Viet Nam Red Data Book 


     Forests of the Southern Paper Raw Material Company (The Company) is located at low and average moutainous area and on the area of eight districts of Kon Tum province, which are Sa Thay, Dak To, Dak Ha, Ngoc Hoi, Tu Mo Rong, Dakglei, Kon Ray and Kon Plong.
Forest land of the Company has formerly been bare land, bare hills and shrubs with no economic value. Besides,  a part of the forest land of the Company is natural forest which has been ravaged by war (Sac Ly mountain), or by long exploitation of people. It has often been burned annually for the purpose of looking for scrap metal and upland cultivation and become degenerated into bare hills with only weeds and scrubs ...
Since 1999, the Company has been allocated land for planting paper material forests by the Committee of Kon Tum province. Up to now, to the present time the Company has been granted certificates of land use rights for a total area of 11.460,42 ha. In addition, the Company has also hired from and combined with other units to use 1.671,30 ha of land to grow raw material forests.
    The Company is located at 377- Phan Dinh Phung street – Kon Tum city - Kon Tum Province. The Company has one president, who is also the director, two deputy directors, four function departments, 10 boards of planting material for paper  located at districts, one Verneer chip woods processing factory. The Company has 140 staff and a number of seasonal workers.
The mission of the Company is planting and trading paper raw material forests to  serve Vietnam Paper Corporation and society. The company's forests are mainly Pinus massoniana and Acacia. Strips of land without forests along streams and on some barren rocky mountain peaks have been protected in parallel with protecting paper raw material trees. Now they have been self-restored over time and created green forest strips along streams with rich biodiversity. Self-recovery natural forests have very small area of ​​land of about 5%, but they have the roles of local protection, preventing soil runoff and creating natural forest fire prevention. These economic, ecological and biological diversity values need to be assessed and planned to have appropriate protection to meet the objectives of sustainable forest management of the Company.
The work on assessing recovery natural forests along small streams has been conducted from February and March, 2016.




 1.1. Natural conditions.

  1) Geographical location

    Kon Tum province is located in the northernmost Highlands, has common border with Laos and Cambodia. It has geographic coordinates from 13055’30” to 15025’30” N, from 107020’15” "to 108033’00” E.
About administrative access: Quang Nam province on the North; Gia Lai province on the South; Quang Ngai province on the East; Laos and Cambodia on the West.

  2) Terrain

    Generally, terrain of the Kon Tum is higher in the North and lower in the South. The highest peak is Ngoc Linh mountain with the height of 2.598m. The topography is diverse and complex with many types of terrain, high, average and low mountains and valleys interwoven. It can be divided into four main types of terrain:
     - Alpine topography.
     - Average mountain topography.
     - Low mountain topography.
     - Valley topography and valley gutters.

  3) Climate, Hydrology.

    - Climate.
    Kon Tum is located in the tropical monsoon climate area. However, because the province is located on different types of terrain, Kontum has many different sub climate areas, which can be classified into the following sub-areas:
     + Ngoc Linh alpine climate sub-area.
     There is huge rainfall, average rainfall is over 3,000 mm per year. Rain focus on July, August and September. During dry season, this area still receives a significant level of rainfall. The average temperature is from 130C to 170C, the coldest month is January with the average temperature of 110C - 150C.
     + Sa Thay low mountain climate sub-area.
     The average rainfall is from 2000 mm to 3000 mm while the average temperature is from 200C to 230C.
     + Kontum valley gutters climate sub-area.
     The annual rainfall is less, only from 1700-2200 mm per year. The average annual temperature is higher than the above two sub-regions, which is  averagely from 230C to 250C.
     - Hydrological
     + Surface water.
     Kon Tum has abundant surface water resources, which is reserved in four major river systems and reservoirs.
     * Se San river basin covers a large area of the province
     * Tra Khuc river watershed is on the Northeast, Thu Bon and Vu Gia river wastersheds are on the North.
     * In addition to surface water from the river system, Kon Tum has abundant surface water resource from irrigation reservoirs, such as Plei Krong Hydropower Lake, Dak Hnieng and Dak Uy irrigation lakes.
     + Groundwater resource.
     The survey result of the Confederation of Southern Hydrogeology shows groundwater of Kontum usually distributes at a depth of from 10 m to 25 m, with borehole flow of form 1 to 3 liters/s. With such groundwater resource, the needs of production and consumption can be met.

 4) Geology and soil

     - Geology
     Kontum is located in the southern ancient massif, which is also called Kontum massif. Geological background is made up of four major groups of rocks: Acid Magma rock group, Alkaloid Magma rock, geological deposition group.
    - Land.
     Kontum has 5 groups of land, consists of 16 units of land, among which barren soil and mountainous red gold humus group account for about 96% of total area and are distributed in the following land groups:
    - Group of alluvial soil
    - Group of gray soil
    - Group of barren soil
    - Group of mountainous red gold humus
    - Group of valley soil established from steep convergence products: including 1 unit land is valley soil established from D steep convergence products, with a total area of 1,679 hectares, accounting for 0,17%.
  5) Forest resources

No. Land types  
Management, utilization (ha)
Direct management and utilisation Combination
Total area Manage-
Allotment to employees
  Total area 11.460,42 10.645,46 10.364,30 232,16 41,96
   - Area that has the red book 11.460,42 10.645,46 10.364,30 232,16 41,96
1 Agriculture land 9.314,66 9.272,70 8.779,23 493,47 41,96
1.1 Forest land 9.314,66 9.272,70 8.779,23 493,47 41,96
   - Plantation forest 7.480,59 7.438,63 6.945,16 493,47 41,96
   - Bare land that can be used for forestry production 1.825,00 1.825,00 1.825,00    
   - Nurseries land 9,07 9,07 9,07    
2  Non-agricultural land 4,26 4,26 4,26    
   - Special land 4,26 4,26 4,26    
3  Treeless rocky land 2.141,50 2.141,50 2.141,50    
  - Land along the streams unused 403,39 403,39 403,39    
  Land will be returned to local Authority 1.738,11 1.738,11 1.738,11    

    Besides the granted land area of 11.460,42 ha, the company also manage forest area as follows:
    + The company is managing 239,59 ha of land that have not been granted certificates of land use rights. (The land was assigned by the Kontum province for afforestation but still in the process of issuance).
    + The company is using the 1693,27 ha of land of other units and organizations. This area of land is planned for planting paper material in the form of joint ventures.

 1.2. Economic – social conditions.

   Kontum province has 8 districts and 1 city.

   1) Population: According to the Statistical Yearbook 2014 of Kon Tum, up to 31, December, 2014 the provincial population is 484.215 people, of which the majority of 307.109 people live in rural areas, accounting for 64,9% of the population. There are 166.142 people live in the urban area, accounting for 35,1%. The average population density is 50 people/km2. The population density is highest at Kontum city with 364 people/km2 and lowest at Kon Plong district with 17 people/km2 and Sa Thay district with 21 people/ km2. The fertility rate is 3,08% per year.

   2) Ethnic groups. There are 22 ethnic groups, including the Kinh, Xo Dang, Ba Na, Gie Trieng, Gia rai, Brau, Ro Mam and other ethnic groups.
    Kon Tum has the community of 28 ethnic groups living intermingled with each other, including 6 indigenous ethnic: Gia Rai, Ba Na, Xo Dang, Gie - Triêng, Brau, Ro Mam. In addition, there are other ethnic groups migrating from the North such as Tay, Nung, Thai, Muong, Tho, San Diu, San Chay, Mnong, Knives, Laos, Giay; from the Central such as: Kotu, Cor, Van Kieu, Hre, Phase Out, Co Ho, E De, Ta Oi; from the South such as Chinese and Khmer.

   3) Labour.
    The total number of people in working age in the province is 217.737 people, accounting for 50,8% of the population. The main labor group is the Agro-forestry group, which accounts for 71,8%.
About labor quality: the proportion of trained workers is still low compared to the average level of the region and the country. The unemployment rate of the province is 2,06%. Urban unemployment rate is 3,3% while rural unemployment is 1,4%.

  4) Economic.
    Average economic growth rate of the province is 14,7%. In terms of economic structure, although the province has shifted towards industrialization, the share of agriculture, forestry and fishery sector are still huge, accounting for 44,37% of GDP while trade and service sector account for 34,23% and industry and construction sector accounted for only 21,4% of GDP.
     According to documents under the 15th Kon Tum Party Delagte Congress of the tẻm from 2015 to 2020, about statistics on the economic - society situation of Kon Tum province in 2015, the annual growth rate reached an average of 13, 94%; state budget revenue was 2,134 billion dong; average income/person/year was 1.555USD; the general poverty rate dropped to 11,5%.
The structure, the proportion of the economy in 2015:
    - Agriculture, forestry and fisheries accounted for 34,72%;
    - Industry and construction accounted for 27,17%;
    - Business - accounting for 38,11% service.

   5) Cultural, social and infrastructure conditions

     - Education: The literacy rate of the population aged 15 and older is 84,5%.
    - Training: Kon Tum province has 01 university, 01 economic and technology college, 01 vocational school, 01 continuing education center and a systerm of vocational training systems at districts. These schools are responsible for training and providing human resources and technical workers to the province.
    - Traffic:
    + Road Traffic: Road traffic is the only trafic type in Kon Tum. Up to now, the province has 1.338 km of road, including 390km of national roads, 374 km of provincial roads, 190 km of district roads, 46 km of urban roads and 338 km of commune internal roads. Road density reached 0,1km/km2, which is equal to only 50% the rate of the country. The density at mountainous communes is very low.
     On the territory of Kon Tum province, there are 04 national roads: 14A, 24, 40 and 14C with a total length of 390km. These national roads, especially Ho Chi Minh (Ho Chi Minh City route coincides with 14A national road), have created a transport network linked to many economic regions in the country and with neighbors countries.
     * Roads to commune’s center and commune groups: Currently, the province has 91,7% of communes that have roads to the commune’s center in two seasons.
* Border roads such as Dak Mon - Dak Long, Dak Pet – Dak Nhong, Dak Man - DakBlo ... are under constructio; border patrol road: the 713 border posts has finished; the 705 border posts is constructing.
+ Waterways: Due to the narrow and steep river systems with waterfalls, the province cannot exploit water transport. About Ya ly lake waterway system, because there is no transportation needs on the lake, the province has not conduct cannal survey.



  2.1. Investigation objectives.

   2.1.1  General objective.

    To assess and classify biodiversity contributing to conduct sustainable forest management according to the standards of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) at the Southern Raw Material for Pulp and Paper Limited Company

   2.1.2  Detail objectives

    1) To investigate and assess the ecosystem diversity of plantation forests and secondary self-recovery  forests growing along streams; identify low-impact solutions to maintain their stability.
    2) To investigate and assess species diversity of flora and fauna.
    3) To assess the situation of protection and management as well as impact factors on plant biodiversity in the area managed by the Company in order to propose measures to mitigate adverse impacts.

 2.2. Investigation methods

  2.2.1 General methods, investigation subjects and scope

   1) Investigation scope and limit, methods of selecting investigation sites.

    - The general method applied here is rapid biodiversity appraisal.
    - Criteria for selecting investigation sites.
     + There are natural self-recovery forest strips along streams that need to be assessed.
     + The site is located in the region that have been identified as having representative biological diversity or high conservation and ecological value.
     + There is information in the past about the biodiversity.
    The Company's forest resources are mainly plantation forests. Only 5% of the area is natural forests along streams which have just been self-restored and mostly are young and impoverished forests with poor biological diversity. Therefore, this report will refer to the existing documentation for additional information on biodiversity.

   2) Investigation subjects.

   Investigation subjects include:
    - The main ecosystems including:
     + Secondary self-restored forest ecosystem on degraded forest land along the streams.
     + Plantation forest ecosystem: Pinus massoniana, Hybrid Acacia, Acaleph Acacia planted from seeds, white Eucalyptus.
    - Evaluation of plant biodiversity of higher flora in the area.
    - The terrestrial vertebrate fauna: mammals, birds, reptiles.

   2.2.2 Investigation methods

    1) Inheriting documents.
     Collecting existing documents and maps of forest status, biodiversity which have been completed in the province  by domestic and international units. Selecting and inheriting documents such as:
     - Map types: Map of forest status of the Company, Three types of forests checking map in accordance with the Directive 38/2005/CT-TTg of the Prime Minister of the Kon Tum province.
     - The documentation of biodiversity assessment conducted in the neighborhood areas, such as Chu Mom Ray National Park, Dak To Forestry Compan, Dak Uy nature reserve.
     - Management plans, forest development projects, reports on task implementation, maps and other available reports on the Company's forests.
     - Other scientific literature, such as: The documents on classification of plants and animals, such as Vietnam Red Book 2007, the list of rare and endangered plants and animal species under the Decree 32/2006/ND CP, the IUCN Red List in 2010, the published documents on the fauna of Vietnam and neighboring countries.
    2) Field work.
     - Typical route investigation: The method of typical route survey is applied to investigate the ecosystem of restoring natural forests along streams in the plantation forests of the Company.
     - Arranging investigation routes: Arrange three typical routes at three representative areas: Sa Thay (Low zone with the altitude below 1,000m), Sac Ly hill – contiguous territory of the three districts, Dak To,  Ngoc Hoi and Sa Thay district (Low and average region with the altitudearound 1000m), Tu Mo Rong (Region with an average altitude above 1,000 meters). The route is arranged to go through all types of forests (both restoring natural forest corridors along streams and plantation forests)
     - For restoring natural forest ecosystem along streams, the structure of ecosystems will be described and photographed, the structure of the secondary level will also be described, plant species will be collected. For plantation forest ecosystem, the main plantation tree species and understorey vegetation will be described. On the routes,  regeneration measuring cells with the size of 5m x 5m (25m2) will be established to conduct measuring regeneration tree species, evaluate the status and quality of regeneration. Some typical places will be chosen to set up sample plots with seven trees on each plot to quickly determine the density of big tree forests.
     - For the flora and fauna, the entire species appearing on the investigation routes will be recorded. For the species whose names cannot be unidentified right on the fields, specie samples will be collected, described and photographed for later reference. The distribution of rare plant species will be identified on a map or marked by the GPS.
     - Describing the exploitation process and its impact on flora and fauna. On these routes, observing and assessing human impacts to biodiversity, such as logging activities, non-timber forest product ẽploitation, hunting, ...
     - Interview: Interview method is applied to collect information on the composition of plants, animals and their distribution in the past and present. The selected subjects to interview and investigate are the people living in villages close to the forests of the Company. The selected interviewees are technical staff, staff at production team of the company and the people who are knowledgeable about the forests and its history, especially those people who are working in the forests like logging timber, harvesting non-timber forest products and hunting.
     - Expert method: Meeting with experienced professionals in the field of biodiversity and forest protection to discuss and identify plant species that are not identified in the field and to consult the experts about essential forest protection and conservation solution.
    3) Indoor work:
     - Recording tree species composition, arranging and constructing list of higher vascular plants. building list of endemic and rare species appearing in the Red Book of Vietnam, in the IUCN Red list under the Decree 32 of Vietnam Government as well as in CTEs of Vietnam.
     - Analysing, assessing and finishing report on plant biodiversity of the Company.





  3.1 Plant diversity

   3.1.1. Plantation forests of paper raw material tree. The total area of plantation forests

     Table 1: The total area of plantation forests
Forest (Tree) types Area Planted year % Purpose
Hybrid acacia (from seeds) 100,5Ha 2008, 2013 1,08881 Production
Hybrid acacia 91,3Ha 2008-2009 0,98913 Production
Eucalyptus 2,6Ha 2009 0,02817 Testing
Pinus 7.365,0Ha Trước 2007 97,8982 Production Plantation forest types

1) Pinus kesiya Forest.
    032.07 ha area of ​​the forest occupy 97.478 % of  the Company. Plantations from 2000 to 2006. The density of 3,300 trees / Ha  
(2000, 2001.2002 ) and the density of 2,200 trees/Ha ( 2003-2006) Growing from seed to seedling origin 2 is Information and Communication Dalat tricuspid tricuspid Dakglei .
     Pinus kesiya planted in 2000 , 2001, 2002 now has an average height of 14.5 m , an average diameter of about 15-16cm.  Pinus kesiya originating tricuspid Dalat has generally higher height 0.5m versus Dakglei origin , also relative difference in diameter of 0.2 - 0.5cm .
     The Pine trees grown in the Company generally grow and develop quite well with balanced height and diameter compared to the trees grown across the country.  The trees are in a phase of strong growth and required thinning process.
     - Natural vegetation under the canopy of pine trees is negligible. On the places where the forest has closed canopy, pine needle layer decompose slowly and have eliminated most of the species of vegetation, weeds while individual trees or shrubs are seldom scattered. On the places where the forest has low closed canopy, there is well developed shrub and fresh vegetationlayer. Tree species composition is simple, relatively the same: fresh layer , which mainly include Dicranopteris linearis ( Underw)., Cyclosorus parasiticus(L.)Farwell and some species of grasses and shrub types such as... Sageretia theezans Brongn, Sauropus brevipes Muell-Arg, Glochidion eriocarpum Champ, Melastoma candidum D.Don, Eupatorium odoratum L.....  Regenerating trees seldom appear with negligible amount, such as  Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) Rob., Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) Burtt et Hill, Paranephelium spirei Lecomte, Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.) Muell.Arg., Castanopsis argyrophylla King ex Hook.f., Cratoxylon cochinchinensis (Lour.) Blume, Aporosa aff. sphaerosperma Gagnep., Macaranga denticulata (Blume) Muell.Arg.....
     The dry floor is thick, covers 100% of the ground area in some places with a few centimeters thick. Along with the withered shrub vegetation in the dry season, this is the cause of forest fires at the company.
All shrubs, vegetation, regenerating trees under the pines’ canopy are present in the plant composition of naturally regenerating forest strips along the streams, so they can be included in evaluating regenerating riparian vegetation.
     - Growth environment  of the pine forest: airy, cool, relatively dry
     - Economic value, current ecological synthesis
    The majority of pine plantation forests are promoting the protective value for land and water. But the existing area of pine forests is entering phase of maintenance cutting and pruning, we should choose appropriate measures of cutting to avoid the abuse of forest intermediate cutting for early product harvest, which will reduce the economic and ecological value of the forest.
     - Impact measures.
     - Protection and prevention of forest fires.
     - Make use of harvesting resin from about to cut trees to increase tree value.
     - For the plantation forest with density of 2.200 trees/ha, we should research on the measure of cutting only once.
     - On the remaining area of bare land, we should grow pine forests to maintain operations for the company employees.
   2) Acacia plantation forests.
     - The two main species planted on the area are: Hybrid acacia (Acacia auriculiformis & mangium) and Acacia mangium.
     These two types of plantation forests are fairly similar in techniques of cultivation, and caring, soil and planting density (according to norms). Currently, forest structures are quite similar. There is only one different point is the Acacia forest’s floor is more uniform while other characteristics are quite homogeneous between the two types of forests. Therefore, we put the two forest types together for analysis.
     Area:  212,66 ha (Planted from 2008 to 2015).
     Characteristics of plant:
     Acacia forest grow well. The Acacia forest at the age class of class II (7 years) has an average height of 10-15 meters; dbh of 10-22 cm. The forest has closed canopy and good vitality
     Natural vegetation under the canopy of acacia forests has similar components: fresh floor grows fairly well, with shrub layer regenerating trees have covered  was 80-90% of ground area. In the fresh floor, the most popular species are: Dicranopteris linearis ( Underw)., Cyclosorus parasiticus(L.)Farwell and some species of grasses. The species of shrub: are Sageretia theezans Brongn, Sauropus brevipes Muell-Arg, Glochidion eriocarpum Champ, Melastoma candidum D.Don, Eupatorium odoratum L.....  There are scattered regenerating species such as Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) Rob., Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) Burtt et Hill, Paranephelium spirei Lecomte, Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.) Muell.Arg., Castanopsis argyrophylla King ex Hook.f., Cratoxylon cochinchinensis (Lour.) Blume, Aporosa aff. sphaerosperma Gagnep., Macaranga denticulata (Blume) Muell.Arg.....
      Regenerating tree density is very low (600 trees/ha). The regenerating trees have poor quality with the major component of light-loving trees, high bud regeneration rate. They cannot become natural tree layer replacing for Acacia (See appendix 2).
     All shrubs, fresh vegetation, regenerating trees under the canopy of acacia trees are present in the plant composition of naturally regenerated forest strips along streams in the area. Therefore, they can be included when assessing regenerating plants along streams.
     - Forest environment: The Acacia forest environment is cool and moisture
     - Current economic and ecological value.
     The majority of plantation Acacia forests are promoting values for the protection of soil and water. However, the area of Acacia mangium are entering the age hollow tree and easy to be fallen. Some trees’ tops are death of unknown cause, which devaluates economic value. Acacia forests are monoculture forests with common ecological requirements and have only one-storey forest structure so the stability of the forest is not high. On the other hand, at the age of 7-8 years old, Acacia forests have the highest value of using wood materials. Therefore, it is necessary to harvest, renovate for reforestation.
     - Impact measures.
     In the structure of production forests, acacia forests should be harvested in strips and reforested after harvesting using cutting trees with high economic value.

Pine and Acacia-mangium plantations of the Company

kesiya plantation

   3.1.2. Secondary restoration natural forest along small streams. Forest ecosystem and forest types

        The natural restoration forest strips along the streams in the plantation forest of the Company has narrow width. However, they create very different situation to the situation of the next Pine plantation forest. They have a good structure on diverse species composition and structural level is clear in many places. In other words, they have created their on secondary tropical forest ecosystem. According to the Vietnam vegetation classification criteria of Thai Van Trung, these restoration forest strips are the tropical rainy season evergreen forest. This ecosystem contributing with vast plantation forest ecosytem make up a particualr mixed forest ecosystems of the area.
     General characteristics of secondary restoration natural forest ecosystems along streams:
     * Features 1 – There is only one common forest status, which is secondary restoration forest after upland farming, forest fire on degraded land along small streams.
     - There are many native regenerating species which are light demanding such as oaks, Machilus velutina Champ, Machilus bonii H. Lec., Euodia  meliaefolia  Benth, Toona microcarpa Harms,  Cratoxylon cochinchinensis (Lour.) Blume,... Bamboo, Neohouzeaua grow sporadically or by patches. There are many shrubs, vines that are recovering such as  Caryota urens L. ... Some grass species, such as Imperata cylindryca (L.) P. Beauv...  grow in bare land.
   * Features 2: There is little or no valuable timber species, medicinal plants high value that can recovery. Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr.  ... do not appear in the composition.
     * Features 3: The structure of recovering natural forest has appeared two timber tree floors. Although the tree canopy of timber tree floors is low, overall coverage remains high as many species of vines, shrubs and grass have developed which has increased the forest's biodiversity.
     * Features 4: Effect of preventing surface flow and capacity of soil retention and land anti-washout have been increased. The effect of collecting and keeping water has increased, which is illustrated by the fact that soil is always moist, small streams of water appear in many places around year. This contributes to reduce flooding after heavy rain for the low areas, provide clean water to the people living around the forest.
     * Features 5: This ecosystem is only one small area, mainly distributes in high hills, along streams or in steep places to which it is difficult to travel.
     * Features 6: Many birds, small mammals, insects have turned to come back, to earn a living, live, or drink water.
     * Features 7: The economic value of NTFPs is not large, but it has significant meaning to ethnic communities living around the forests of the company.
     Landscape values are being restored. Young forest is recovering and still poor but is little affected because of well-protected.   List of plants and plant Taxon

     We have conducted a preliminary investigation on the typical routes on February 2016.  We have finished investigating and inspecting tree species and establishing regional list of plants for 703 species of vascular plants, (According to the classification system of A.L. Takhtajan (1977). The list has 135 families, 343 genus of 5 divisions.
Summary list of forest plants of the Company is described as follows.

   Table 2: Forest plant components of the SPRM Company

Plant divisions Number of plant family Number of plant genus Number of plant species
Lycopodiophyta 2 3 4
Equisetophyta 1 1 1
Polypodiophyta 13 20 41
Pinophyta 4 4 6
Magnoliophyta 115 315 651
Total: 135 343 703
The division of Magnoliophyta can be divided into:  
Magnoliopsida (96) (341) (590)
Liliopsida (19) (74) (113)

Natural forests along streams
of the Company
Cây kơnia- 
Irvingia malayana

   Compare and comment

    The result of comparing the above forest plant list of the Company to forest plant list of the Chu Mom Ray National Park, which has common border with the Company, is represented as following:

    Table 3:  Comparing plants at Chu Mom Ray National Park to plants at the the Southern Raw Material for Pulp and Paper Limited Company

Plant divisions Number of plant family Number of plant genus Number of plant species
Khuyết lá thông (Psilotophyta) 1 - 1 - 1 -
Thông đất (Lycopodiophyta) 2 2 3 3 16 4
Mộc tặc (Equisetophyta) 1 1 1 1 2 1
Dương xỉ  (Polypodiophyta) 25 13 83 20 175 41
Hạt trần  (Pinophyta) 5 4 8 4 16 6
Hạt kín (Magnoliophyta) 164 115 765 315 1629 651
Total 198 153 861 343 1859 703

     Comment: Although the two organizations have close position, almost the same altitude, soil, climate, plants in the Company has smaller number of species, genus and families of trees in comparison with Chu Mom Ray National Park. The reason is that previously natural forest has loss leading to the loss of forest biodiversity. Restoration forest along small streams on very limited area is only a layer of simple light demanding trees. Rare plant species (endangered)

     Based on the Vietnam Red Book 2007, World red list (IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants, 2007), the tree list of groups IA and IIA issued with Decree 32/2006 ND-CP dated 30/3/2006 of the government, rare plant species which are endangered and at risk of extinction are recorded as follows:

    Table 4: The endangered species of the region

No. Latin name of the plants Vietnamese name Decree 32    
1 Cycas micholitzii Thiselton-Dyer  Tuế lá xẻ IIA  
2 Cycas immersa Craib. Tuế chim IIA  
     In the whole area of investigation, no species in the Red Book of the world .
     In the Decree 32 only there are 2 species of Cycas micholitzii Thiselton-Dyer  and Cycas immersa Craib be longto type IIA  - exploiting limited use , the remaining species of plants are normally not subject to banning mining in Vietnam .
In summary, there are 18 rare and endangered species which are in the stage of self-restoration. Therefore, trees are still small, few in number and we just need to take appropriate protection measures so they can self-restore.


   3.1.3    General assessment 

     The plants of naturally recovering forest along small streams on Acacia and Pine plantation forests of the Company are plentiful and varied. There are 703 species belong to 343 genus, 135 families and 5 branches of higher vascular plants. There is few specific species, which are mainly light demangding timber trees. There are large plant families (10 families), specific to the region including: Dau (53), Ba manh (46), Mulberry (29), Camphor (26), Poaceae (26), Daisy (23), Rubiaceae (21),   Annonaceae (13), Mangosteen (12) and Araceae (12) (see Appendix 1).
In the composition of plants, there are 2 species are listed in Group IIA- exploiting limited use of the 32 Decrees.
Land is quite good and in line with the great views and Acacia code, need economic investment on the land planting blank, should be cut or trimmed Pine Forest to increase growth.

 3.2. Animal diversity

   3.2.1. Composition of mammals.

Scientific names Vietnamese name DNĐ VN 2003 DLĐ IUCN/ 2006 Decree
32/2006/ NĐ-CP
Chiroptera Bộ dơi        
Rhinolophidae Họ dơi        
1) R. subbadius Dơi l¸ n©u        
Primates Bé linh tr­ëng        
Cercopithecidae Hä KhØ        
2) Macaca arctoides Khỉ mặt đỏ T NT IIB H, Pv
Carnivore Bộ ăn thịt        
Viverridae Hä CÇy        
3) Viverra zibetha CÇy gi«ng     IIB H, Pv
4) Viverricula indica CÇy h­¬ng     IIB H, Pv
Rodentia Bé  GÆm nhÊm        
Sciuridae Họ Sóc cây        
5) Ratufa bicolor Sãc cây     IIB H, Pv
Hystricidae Họ Nhím        
6) Atherurus macrourus §on   NT   H, Pv
7) A. brachyurus NhÝm ®u«i ng¾n   NT   Ta

Sóc cây - Ratufa bicolor

Con D
ơi-Corynorhinus townsendii

   Endangered situation:
     NT, T: Decline
     IIB: Limited extraction
     H: Information cited from Dang Huy Huynh
     Pv: Information extracted from interview result conducted from 7th March to 11th June, 2005
     Qs: Information extracted from research result conducted from 7th March to 11th June, 2005 (Quan sát trong đợt nghiên cứu từ 7/3 đến 11/6/2005 (observation, tracks)
     - There are 7 species of mammals appeared in the area managed by the Company, among which fours species are listed in Group IIA- exploiting limited use of the 32 Decrees.
     - However, 7 species are mainly discovered from interviews and recently rarely appeared in the area.

   3.2.2. Reptile

No. Vietnamese names – Scientific names Cites Sources
1 Kỳ đà hoa Varanus salvator PL.II Pv
  1. Họ Trăn Boidae    
2 Trăn mắc võng P. reticulatus PL.II Pv
  2. Họ Rắn nước Colubridae    
3 Rắn nước Xenochrophis piscator PL.II Qs
  3. Họ Rắn hổ Elapidae    
4 Rắn hổ mang bành Naja naja PL.II Qs
5 Rắn hổ mang chúa Ophiophagus hannah PL.II Pv


                                                         Xenochrophis piscator ( Rắn nước)


     PL.2: Tradable under control
     - In five species found in the area managed by the Company  are tradable under control.
     - In the five found, 2 species are detected by observing samples, while 3 species are found through interviews.
   3.2.3. Bird component.
Scientific names Vietnamese name DNĐ VN 2000 DLĐ IUCN/ 2006 Decree 32/2006/ NĐ-CP CITES
Basic findings Habitats
Falconiformes Bộ Cắt            
Accipitridae Họ Ưng            
1) Spilornis cheela Diều hoa Miến Điện     IIB II TL, QS 1,2,4
Falconidae Họ Cắt            
2) Polihierax insignis Cắt nhỏ họng trắng   NT IIB II QS 1,2,3
Psittaciformes Bộ Vẹt            
Psittacidae Họ Vẹt            
3) Psittacula himalayana Vẹt đầu xám     IIB II TL, PV 1,2
4) Psittacula alexandri Vẹt ngực đỏ     IIB II TL, PV 1,2
Strigiformes Bộ Cú            
Tytonidae Họ Cú lợn            
5) Tyto alba Cú lợn lưng xám     IIB II TL, PV 1,2
Strigidae Họ Cú mèo            
6) Bubo zeylonensis Dù dì phương đông T   IIB II TL 1,2
Apodiformes Bộ Yến            
Apodidae Họ Yến            
7)Aerodramus fuciphagus Yến hông xám     IIB   QS 2,3
Coraciiformes Bộ Sả            
Alcedinidae Họ Bói cá            
8) Alcedo hercules Bói cá T NT     TL 1,2
Passeriformes Bộ Sẻ            
Eurylaimidae Họ Mỏ rộng            
9) Psarisomus dalhousiae Mỏ rộng xanh T       TL, PV 1
10) Pitta elliotii Đuôi cụt bụng vằn T       TL 1
Turdidae Họ Chích  chòe            
11) Copsychus malabaricus Chích  chòe lửa     IIB   TL, PV 1,2
Timaliidae Họ Khướu            
12) Garrulax milleti Khướu đầu đen R NT IIB   TL 1,2
13) Garrulax vassali Khướu đầu xám T   IIB   TL 1,2
Emberizidae Họ Sẻ đồng            
14) Emberiza aureola Yểng, Nhồng   NT     TL, QS 3,4
Sturnidae Họ sáo            
15) Gracula religiosa Sáo đá     IIB II TL, PV 1

      Chim Bói cá - Alcedo hercules
    Chim Sẻ đồng - Emberizidae

Vẹt ngực đỏ- Psittacula alexandri
Cú lợn lưng xám - Tyto alba

Chich choè lửa - Copsychus malabaricus
Sáo đá - Gracula religiosa
        Bướm Quạ- Papilio polites  

Cu ngói Streptopelia tranquebarica

     Endangered: see more at definition
     QS= Information observed directly from the nature
     TL= According to references
     PV= Interviewing local people
   Habitat distribution
     1 = Evergreen broadleaf forests, less affected by human activities.
     2 = Secondary forests, bamboo forests and plantation. forests.
     3 = Shifting cultivation land and waste land after cultivation.
     4 = Residential area, arable land (agricultural crops, rice).
     - Have been discovered 15 species of birds, including some species of limiting exploitation and decline in number
     - Do not detect endangered, threatened and rare. The birds found mostly inherited from documents and interviews.



   4.1. Conclusion

     - Pine forests and Acacia forests grow and develop well. These forests are at the age of young forest that need thinning and caring. Forest fires and caterpillars disease can always happen and threaten the growing of the forests.
     - The ecosystem of riparian restoration forest has one main type of forest, which is low mountain evergreen tropical rainforest on the plateau.
     - Self-restoring young forest along small streams in a pine forests of the company have a very diverse flora. There are 703 species belong to 343 genus, 135 families and 5 branches of higher vascular plants. Of these, 2 species exploitation limited IIB- In Decree 32 of the Government.
     - Forest animals appear only species depletion and mining restrictions but scattered and fragmented because only natural forests along small streams. Majority detected by recorded from documents and interviews
     - Plants in natural restoration forests along small stream have 14 major life forms, among which the life form of timber trees predominates and dominates other life forms. Thanks to the variety of life forms, forest trees in the area have very diverse applications with up to 21 groups of common use, which  have confirmed their economic and ecological value.
     - About forest animals,  only endangered and rare species apprear on the area, but they appear scattered and dispersed because natural forests only exist along small streams. The majority of forest animals are detected by recorded from documents and interviews.
     - Because all forest area under the management of the Company are production forests with scattered plants and animals, no critically endangered or endangered species, the mainly measures should be taken is the measure to enhance protection.

   4.2. Recommendations

     - Invest more in equipments, facilities and human resources to control forest fires effectively because the monoculture pine forests are large, close to residential areas  and have many inflammable materials.
     - Effectively control caterpillar disease to avoid environmental economic consequences for the organization. Specialized staff should be aranged.
     - Strengthen the collaboration with local authorities in the task of dissemination and education on forest protection, forest fire prevention.
     - Organize and rebuild forest fire warning system tables, action guidelines, fire protection.
     - Link patrol routes of forest protection stations with regional foresters.


   1. Anon, 2000. Vietnam forest trees Name. Agriculture publishers Hanoi
    2. BirdLife International, 2009. The BirdLife checklist of the birds of the world, with conservation status and taxonomic sources. Version 2. Downloaded from zip [.xls zipped 1 MB]
    3. The Ministry of Science and Technology,  2007. Vietnam Red Book. Publisher of Science and Technology, Hanoi.  
   4. The Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 2006. Decree No. 32/2006 / ND-CP of March 30, 2006 on the management of forest plants, wildlife.  
    5. Đang Huy Huynh (Eds), and nnk, 1994. A list of all mammals (Mammalia) Vietnam. Publisher of Science and Technology, Hanoi.
    6. Nguyen Cu, Lê Trong Trai, Karen Phillipps, 2000. Vietnam bird. Publisher Labor - Social, Hanoi.
   7. Nguyen Van Sang, Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen Quang Trưong, 2005. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles Vietnam. Agriculture Publishing House: 180 pages.
    8. Nguyen Xuan Đang, Le Xuan Canh, 2009. Animal taxonomy class (Mammalia) and characteristic wildlife fauna Vietnam. Publisher of Natural Sciences and Technology, Hanoi
     9. Thai Van Trung, 1998. The tropical forest ecosystem in Vietnam. Publishers of science and engineering.
     10. Vo Quy, Nguyen Cu, 1999. Catalogue of birds of Vietnam (In the second). Publisher of Science and Technology, Hanoi.

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